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Multi-element Analysis and Characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Pollution in Dhaka

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Volume: 6 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 334-359
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2006.12.0001
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Bilkis A. Begum1, Swapan K. Biswas1, Philip K. Hopke 2, David D. Cohen3

  • 1 Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
  • 2 Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5808, USA
  • 3 Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232, Australia

Abstract

PIXE (Proton Induced X-Ray Emission) and PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission) have been used to measure the concentration of over 20 elements present in coarse and fine atmospheric particle samples. These samples were collected at a semi-residential site at Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2002 to June 2003. The multi-elemental capability of PIXE and PIGE enabled the use of these elemental-concentration data to define fingerprints of various coarse and fine particle sources in the atmosphere using factor analysis along with linear regression. Biplots between a major component of a given source identified by the factor analysis with another signature element were prepared. Regression analyses could then be performed on a subset of the plot to quantify the relationship between these constituents in this fingerprint. The identified fingerprints included anthropogenic sources, such as motor vehicles, Zn source, two-stroke engine, and fugitive Pb; as well as natural sources, such as sea spray and soil dust. In this study, the chemical compositions of elements of these fingerprints were compared with the results obtained from PMF modeling that had been obtained in a previous study.

Keywords

Polycarbonate filter paper PIXE PIGE Fingerprints


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