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Volume 16, No. 4, April 2016, Pages 990-999 PDF(1.66 MB)  
doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2015.02.0074   

Seasonal Variation of Selected Metals in Particulate Matter at an Industrial City Kota, India

Manju Meena1, Bharat Singh Meena1, Uttra Chandrawat1, Ashu Rani2

1 Department of Chemistry, Government College, Kota-324001, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Kota, Kota-324005, Rajasthan, India


  • Seasonal variation in heavy metals concentration in SPM & RPM was analyzed.
  • Anthropogenic metals are higher in winter and lower in summer.
  • Crustal metals are higher in summer and lower in winter.
  • Metal origin sources were identified by EF, correlation and PCA.
  • Point source for heavy metal pollution is coal based KSTPS.



This study investigates seasonal variation in concentration of some heavy metals in suspended and respirable particulate matter (SPM and RPM) collected from five different zones situated in Kota city during both summer (March, April, May and October) and winter (January, February, November and December) seasons of 2011–2012. Mean concentrations of anthropogenic origin metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) were higher in winter and lower in summer with their relative abundance in order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd while reverse trend was observed for crustal origin metals (Ca, Mg and Fe) at all zones. Meteorological conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and wind direction during winter and summer were found affecting the metals concentration trends in different seasons. Wind roses indicate that the zones lying in predominant North-east wind direction from point source (KSTPS) in winter (25.74%) and summer (15.31%) faced higher metal burden following zone 1, which is suffering most owing to its closest location to the source. Statistical analysis by Pearson’s correlations, enrichment factor and principal component analysis indicates that coal based Thermal Power Plant is the major source of heavy metals besides other industrial activities in the study area. It is to be noted that because of higher residence time, significant concentration of Pb is found at all the zones in the city which, probably, has its origin in earlier vehicular exhaust as well. 



Keywords: Seasonal variation; Suspended and respirable particulate matter; Pearson’s correlations; Enrichment factor; Principal component analysis.



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