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Volume 15, No. 3, June 2015, Pages 799-813 PDF(1.05 MB)  
doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2014.09.0190   

Mode and Place of Origin of Carbonaceous Aerosols Transported From East Asia to Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

Kojiro Shimada1,2, Masamichi Shimada1, Akinori Takami3, Shuichi Hasegawa4, Akihiro Fushimi3, Takemitsu Arakaki5, Watanabe Izumi1, Shiro Hatakeyama1

1 Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
2 Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Kouto, Tokyo 136-0075, Japan
3 National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
4 Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan
5 University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan


  • The sources and areas of aerosols transported from East Asia was investigated.
  • OC, EC, heavy metals and ionic components were examined at Cape Hedo throughout 2010.
  • The source in North China was coal combustion and in South China was oil combustion.
  • EC concentration derived from coal combustion was higher than from oil combustion.



This study investigated the source categories and emission areas of carbonaceous aerosols transported from East Asia to the East China Sea. Mass concentrations of heavy metals, ionic components, organic carbon, and elemental carbon (EC) were measured at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station in Okinawa, Japan, throughout 2010. The relative influences of different categories of aerosols were determined by positive matrix factorization, and the source regions of each emissions category were evaluated by using the total potential source contribution function. Five source categories were identified: dust, sea salt and nitrate, secondary species, coal combustion, and oil combustion. The results showed that the major source of aerosols in North China is coal combustion, whereas the major source in South China, Japan, and Korea is oil combustion. The relative contributions of the five sources to EC concentrations at Cape Hedo were dust 7.0%, sea salt and nitrate 19.1%, secondary species 28.5%, oil combustion 12.8%, and coal combustion 32.6%. In particular, wintertime coal combustion in residential areas of North China contributed significantly to EC in 2010. The results also indicate that the contribution of coal combustion in source areas was higher in winter (52%), whereas the contribution of oil combustion was higher in spring (33%).



Keywords: Carbonaceous aerosols; Source area; Emission area; Contribution to EC.



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