Volume 14, No. 5, August 2014, Pages 1383-1391 PDF(5.02 MB)
Particulate Matter and Number Concentrations of Particles Larger than 0.25 μm in the Urban Atmosphere of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Tareq Hussein1,2, Mansour A. Alghamdi3, Mamdouh Khoder3, Ahmad S. AbdelMaksoud3, Hisham Al-Jeelani3, Mohammad K. Goknil3, Ibrahim I. Shabbaj3, Fahd M. Almehmadi3, Antti Hyvärinen4, Heikki Lihavainen4, Kaarle Hämeri1
1 University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 48, FI-00014 UHEL, Helsinki, Finland
2 The University of Jordan, Department of Physics, Amman 11942, Jordan
3 King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, Department of Environmental Sciences, P. O. Box 80208, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
4 Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palménin aukio 1, P.O. Box 503, FI-00101, Helsinki, Finland
- Temporal variation of PM and number concentration (NC, Dp 0.25–32 µm) in Jeddah.
- PM10 rarely exceeded 200 µg/m3 and NC (Dp 0.25–32 µm) rarely exceeded 500 cm–3.
- PM2.5 and PM1 concentration had 39.5% and 19.3% of the PM10, respectively.
We investigated the temporal variation of PM and aerosol particle number concentration (TC, Dp 0.25–32 µm) during year 2012 in Jeddah city. We focused on the daily patterns, wind sector analysis, and the effect of ambient conditions. The daily median values of the PM10 rarely exceeded 200 µg/m3. The PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations showed similar temporal variation with fraction of 39.5% and 19.3% of the PM10, respectively. The daily median values of the TC were generally below 500 cm–3 but showed three distinguished peaks (as high as 950 cm–3) occurred during late September–early November, which was during the time of the Hajj season. These peaks were also observable in the PM2.5 and PM1. The PM10 daily pattern on workdays and Thursdays were similar with a pronounced peak as high as 90 µg/m3 during the morning time. The PM2.5 and PM1 daily patterns were also similar to those of the PM10, especially on Thursdays and workdays, but with lower concentrations. The TC daily pattern was almost the same on all days showing high concentrations (between 150 and 200 cm–3) during the first half of the day. The daily patterns of the TC were similar to those of the PM1, especially on Workdays and Fridays. The emissions from the industrial city (located in the south of Jeddah) are the main source of PM in Jeddah. During the sea breeze that occurred in the afternoon accompanied low concentrations of PM and TC concentrations. The PM concentrations showed the famous U-shape with respect to the wind speed, whereas the TC was around 150 cm–3 when the wind speed was over 3 m/s. In general, the TC had a different behaviour with respect to the other ambient conditions than that of the PM concentrations, especially PM10.
Daily pattern; Meteorological dependence; Sector analysis.