Volume 14, No. 2, March 2014, Pages 515-521 PDF(657 KB)
Hydrogen Bonded Pyridine Dimer: A Possible Intermediate in the Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol
Yong Yan, Jing Gu, Andrew B. Bocarsly
Frick Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Previously, electrogenerated pyridinyl was implicated as a catalyst for the reduction of CO2 to methanol. However, recent quantum mechanical calculations of both the homogeneous redox potential for the pyridinium/pyridinyl redox couple (900 mV more negative than experimentally reported) and the pKa of the reduced pyridinyl species (~27) have led to the proposal that the homogeneous reduction of pyridinium does not play a role in the observed catalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol. In contrast, a more complete consideration of the reaction including the realization that pyridinium reduction is tightly coupled to H2 evolution, produces a calculated redox potential in agreement with the experimental findings. In reexamining this system, it is found that aqueous solutions containing a near equimolar mixture of pyridine and pyridinium (i.e., solution pH near the pyridinium pKa = 5.2) contain a substantial concentration of a hydrogen-bonded dimer formed by the generation of a N-H•••N bond containing one strong NH bond and one elongated NH bond. This species has been identified by X-ray diffraction of crystals grown in aqueous media from pyridine/pyridinium mixtures, and can be observed directly in solution using Raman spectroscopy. DFT (density functional theory) calculations indicate that the pKa for this species is ~22, a value that is consistent with a proton exchange capability. This suggests that this hydrogen bonded dimer may be the pre-electrocatalyst for the observed activation of CO2.
CO2 sequestration and conversion; Catalyst; Electrochemistry; Pyridinium.