Volume 13, No. 1, February 2013, Pages 301-307 PDF(477 KB)
Particulate Emissions from Commercial Handheld Sparklers: Evaluation of Physical Characteristics and Emission Rates
Raghu Betha, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, E1A-07-03, 117576 Singapore
Ground level fireworks, such as sparklers, are commonly used by children during festive occasions and celebrations. Airborne particulate matter (PM) emissions from these fireworks are of serious health concern. However, to date no information is available on the PM emission characteristics from sparklers and their emission rates. In this study, three commonly used sparklers, namely, low smoke sparklers (LSS), colored sparklers (CS) and whistling sparklers (WS), were investigated for their PM emissions and emission rates. It was observed that WS (4.45 × 1011 s–1 or 3.24 × 1010 g–1) had higher emission rates compared to CS (2.9 × 1011 s–1 or 1.64 × 1010 g–1) and LSS (7 × 1010 s–1 or 1.68 × 109 g–1). A relatively large number of nanoparticles (NPs) were emitted from their burning. About 83% of PM emitted by WS and CS were in the nano size range (aerodynamic diameter (AED) < 50 nm) whereas LSS had 62% of total particles in the nano size range. In addition, particle deposition fractions into the lung were also estimated. It was found that CS and WS had higher deposition efficiency compared to that of LSS.
Sparkler emissions; Particle number concentration; Emission rates; Deposition fraction.