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Volume 14, No. 6, October 2014, Pages 1779-1788 PDF(483 KB)  
doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2013.10.0305   

Indoor Emissions of Carbonaceous Aerosol and Other Air Pollutants from Household Fuel Burning in Southwest China

Hefeng Zhang1,7, Tong Zhu1, Shuxiao Wang1, Jiming Hao1, Heidi E.S. Mestl2, Line W.H. Alnes2,3, Kristin Aunan2,3, Zeqin Dong4, Liying Ma4, Yu Hu4, Min Zhang5, Abdel Wahid Mellouki6, Fahe Chai7, Shulan Wang7

1 School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2 CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research – Oslo), P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway
3 Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N- 0371 Oslo, Norway
4 Guizhou Research & Designing Institute of Environmental Science, 1 Tongren Road, Jinyang New District, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, 550081, China
5 Key Laboratory of Data Analysis and Application, The first Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China
6 ICARE-CNRS, 1C Avenue de la Recherche scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 02, France
7 Atmospheric Environment Istitute, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China


  • Field campaigns were conducted to determine indoor emissions of pollutants from household fuel burning in southwest China.
  • Indoor CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were monitored.
  • Indoor smoke particle size distributions were characterized during ignition, flaming and smoldering phases.
  • Emission factors of indoor black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) were investigated.
  • BC and OC emissions from indoor sources in Chinese rural areas were estimated.



Field campaigns were conducted to determine indoor emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and other air pollutants from household fuel burning in southwest China. “1-h peak” concentrations of CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 14.0 ppm, 200, 220, and 260 µg/m3 for wood and 10.3 ppm, 80, 110, and 180 µg/m3 for coal, respectively. Daily average levels of CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 5.7 ppm, 100, 110, and 160 µg/m3 for wood and 6.0 ppm, 50, 70, and 100 µg/m3 for coal, respectively. For wood and coal, particle size distribution show a prominent Aitken mode with peaks at around 40–80 nm. Emission factors of BC and OC were 0.57 and 2.69 g/kg for wood and 0.01 and 0.31 g/kg for coal, respectively. The total BC emissions from wood and coal (anthracite) burning in China were 63.3 Gg in 2000 and 81.6 Gg in 2005, respectively.



Keywords: Household fuel burning; Indoor emissions; Carbonaceous aerosol; Air pollutions; Particle size distribution.



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