Volume 16, No. 10, October 2016, Pages 2462-2473 PDF(348 KB)
Supplementary MaterialPDF (392 KB)
Loading Rates of Dust and Metals in Residential Houses of Arid and Dry Climatic Regions
Amjad M. Shraim1, Duna A. Alenazi2, Abdel-Salam G. Abdel-Salam3, Prashant Kumar4,5
1 Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, CAS, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, CAS, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (FEPS), University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
5 Environmental Flow Research Centre, FEPS, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom
- Settled dust samples were collected from 38 houses in Almadinah Almunawarah, KSA.
- Loading rates of dust and concentrations of metals were determined.
- Examined variables: proximity to traffic density, smoking, and houses’ ages.
- Insignificant effects for all variables on loading rates and concentrations were found.
- Levels of loading rates and metals in the samples were not high.
Dust samples were collected from 38 naturally ventilated houses for 12 weeks. Effects of three variables in two groups each were evaluated: proximity to traffic density (main- and side-roads), cigarettes smoking (smoking and no-smoking), and houses’ age (old and new). No significant differences were identified between the two groups for all variables (p = 0.227–0.247). The average dust loading rate for the entire group was 66.7 ± 30.9 mg m–2 week–1. The average metal concentrations (µg g–1) for the entire group were 58.7 ± 17.4 for V, 53.8 ± 12.7 (Cr), 473 ± 137 (Mn), 9.68 ± 2.83 (Co), 130 ± 52.1 (Cu), 241 ± 65.3 (Sr), 0.827 ± 0.552 (Cd), 324 ± 143 (Ba), and 58.9 ± 28.9 for Pb. Likewise, the average metal loading rates (µg m–2 week–1) for the entire group were: 4.01 ± 2.41 for V, 3.62 ± 1.97 (Cr), 31.9 ± 18.3 (Mn), 0.662 ± 0.387 (Co), 8.57 ± 5.30 (Cu), 16.3 ± 9.23 (Sr), 0.051 ± 0.034 (Cd), 21.1 ± 12.4 (Ba), and 3.97 ± 2.74 for Pb. We noticed enrichment factors (EF) of less than 2 and strong correlations between V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Sr indicating their crustal origin. Conversely, Pb, Cu, and Cd showed low to moderate correlations together with moderate to significant EF suggesting anthropogenic pollution of non-crustal origins. Despite the scarcity of rain fall and arid environment in the studied area, our dust and metal loading rates can be considered as intermediate when compared to some international cities. Such a finding could be attributed to the absence of major industries and the relatively low traffic density in our study area.
Indoor dust; Dust loading rates; Metals in indoor dust; Almadinah Almunawarah.