Volume 16, No. 6, June 2016, Pages 1464-1472 PDF(722 KB)
Air Quality, Patterns and Otolaryngology Health Effects of Air Pollutants in Beijing in 2013
Fengying Zhang1,2,3, Jin Xu4, Li Wang2, Jinmei Lu5, Yonghua Li3, Yong Ni1, Wuyi Wang3, Thomas Krafft2,6
1 China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012, China
2 CAPHRI School of Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Netherlands
3 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Beijing 100730, China
5 Department of Engineering and Safety, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
6 Institute of Environment Education and Research, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune 411043, India
- Data sources on air pollutants are reliable.
- Temporal patterns of air pollutants including O3, PM10 and PM2.5 were concluded.
- Using the new air quality standard, air quality of Beijing in 2013 was assessed.
- First time to study health effects of air pollutants on human’s ENT in Beijing.
- GAM was used to analyze the association of air pollutants and human’s ENT.
We carried out a time-series analysis on daily/hourly ambient air pollutant concentrations and daily number of outpatient consultations for otolaryngology during the first year (2013) of implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in Beijing. Daily patterns of SO2, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 were determined and hourly characteristics of air pollutants from Dongsi are discussed. Health effects of air pollutants on ear, nose and throat (ENT) were evaluated. The results show that daily air pollutant concentrations had obvious seasonal differences. O3 levels in the warm season were higher than in the cold season, whereas other pollutants showed opposite trends. All pollutants had different seasonal patterns for hourly concentrations. Hours with peak concentrations also had seasonal differences, and hourly time trends of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm, respectively) were different. In contrast with other air pollutants, hourly O3 concentrations in warm season were higher than cold season. Dongcheng District had high PM10 and PM2.5 levels and Beijing experienced heavy PM2.5 pollution in 2013. Ozone became the second main air pollutant in Beijing. All pollutants had health effects on ENT, and lag effects were found for some pollutants. Relative risks in the warm season were higher than in the cold season for O3 and lower than the cold season for the other five air pollutants.
Air pollutants; Air quality; Temporal pattern; Otolaryngology; Beijing.