Volume 11, No. 5, October 2011, Pages 560-569 PDF(959 KB)
Chemical Characterization and Source Identification of Particulate Matter at an Urban Site of Navi Mumbai, India
P. Kothai1, I.V. Saradhi1, G.G. Pandit1, A. Markwitz2, V.D. Puranik1
1 Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085, India
2 GNS Science, National Isotope Centre, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Particulate matter samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler at a residential area of Vashi situated in Navi Mumbai, India during the period of 2008. The sampler facilitates the simultaneous collection of atmospheric particulates in coarse and fine size fractions. The filter samples collected were analysed for trace elements using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The particulate matter trends show higher concentration during winter season compared to other seasons. High concentrations of elements related to soil and sea salt were found in the coarse fraction of particulate matter. Enrichment Factor (EF) analysis with respect to Fe showed enrichment of Cu, Cr, and Mn only in the fine fraction suggesting their origin from anthropogenic sources. The EF value was observed to be maximum for As, Pb and Zn in the fine particulates. However, crustal and marine derived elements showed very low EF values indicating their origin from soil and sea salt respectively. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based multivariate studies identified soil, sea salt and combustion as common sources for coarse and fine particles. Additionaly a source contributing to coarse fraction Br concentration as well as an industrial and Se source contributing to fine fraction particles has been identified.
PM2.5–10; PM2.5; PIXE; EF analysis; PCA.